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Test Paper

This document is a test paper for Grade C referees of the B&SCC. After this paper was written (June 1989) there have been some changes to the rules. Consult your nearest referee.

The International Association of Billiards and Snooker Referees (Revised June 1989).

Contents

Queries Relevant To All Games
Section A
Billiards
Section 1 - The Break
Section 2 - Hazards
Section 3 - Cannons
Section 4 - Misses
Section 5 - Touching Ball
Section 6 - Spotting of the Red
Section 7 - Balls Forced off the Table
Section 8 - Ball(s) Incorrectly Spotted
Section 9 - Referee's Decisions
Snooker
Section 1 - Commencement of a Frame
Section 2 - Spotting of Balls
Section 3 - Touching Ball
Section 4 - Free Ball
Section 5 - Playing Again
Section 6 - Snookering
Section 7 - Angled Ball
Section 8 - Ball on Edge of Pocket
Section 9 - End of Frame Or Game
Section 10 - Foursomes
Section 11 - Referee's Decisions

Queries Relevant To All Games

Section A

Q1 How far is the Baulk line from the face of the bottom cushion?
A. 29 inches (700mm).
Q2 What is the radius of the "D"?
A. 11 1/2 inches (292mm).
Q3 How far is the SPOT from the face of the TOP cushion? (Black Spot)
A. 12 3/4 inches (320mm)
Q4 What is the position of the centre spot? (Blue Spot)
A. Halfway between the middle pockets and equidistant from the faces of the top and bottom cushions.
Q5 Where is the Pyramid Spot? (Pink Spot)
A. Halfway between the Centre Spot and the face of the TOP cushion on the centre longitudinal line of the table.
Q6 What is the minimum length of a cue?
A. 3 feet (914mm).
Q7 When is a ball in Baulk?
A. When a ball on the baulk line has equal amounts either side of the line (in which case the ball is known as a "Line Ball") and when the ball is between the baulk line and the bottom cushion.
Q8 Player in hand places the cue-ball on the edge of the "D". He then asks the referee if the ball is properly placed to play from in-hand? Should the referee inform him?
A. Yes.
Q9 A player has the occasion to use the rest and in doing so the head falls off and touches a ball. Should the player be penalised? A Yes.
Q10 Should a foul be called immediately or on completion of a stroke?
A. Immediately, the penalty awarded when all balls have come to rest.
Q11 A ball is inadvertently moved by the referee or the non-striker. What procedure should the referee adopt?
A. The referee should replace any ball or balls to their original position and no foul be awarded.
Q12 Is it a foul to play with both feet off the floor?
A. At least one of the strikers feet must be touching the floor at the moment of striking the cue ball.
Q13 Can a player have a ball cleaned during a game?
A. Yes. But only the referee is allowed to clean a ball on the table. He should do so at the request of the player.
Q14 Can a ball or set of balls be changed during a game?
A. They may be changed during a game by consent of BOTH players or by the decision of the referee.
Q15 Should the referee fail to notice an incident and a foul is claimed by the opponent may he, the referee, seek advice?
A. The referee is entitled to take the evidence of a spectator best placed for observation to assist in making a decision. The referee should treat such evidence with caution.
Q16 The referee sees that a player is about to make a foul stroke, should the referee warn him ?
A. No.
Q17 In the case of a player making a score and then giving points away by a miss or a foul, should both scores be put on the marking board or the difference between them?
A. Both scores should be recorded on the marking board.
Q18 Define a Push Stroke?
A. A Push Stroke is a foul and is made when (a) the tip of the cue remains in contact with the cue-ball when the cue-ball makes contact with the object ball or (b) when the tip of the cue remains in contact with the cue-ball after the cue-ball has commenced its forward motion. Penalty, Billiards: 2 points, Snooker: value of the ball "on", value of the ball struck, value of the ball pocketed OR value of the ball forced off the table, whichever is the highest.
Q19 Define a Jump Shot?
A. The Jump Shot is a foul in which the cue-ball is made to jump over any object ball. Penalty, Billiards: 2 points, Snooker: value of the ball "on", value of the ball struck, value of the ball pocketed, or value of the ball forced off the table, whichever is the highest. See both notes of Rule 19 Page S13.
Q20 Player in-hand adjusts the position of the cue-ball with his cue and in doing so touches the cue-ball with the tip of his cue. Is this a foul?
A. It would be a foul if the referee considered that the player was attempting to play a stroke.

Billiards

Section 1 - The Break

Q1 Must the players string for break?
A. No. This can be decided by the toss of a coin or by mutual consent.
Q2 The players string for break. "A's" ball finishes on the baulk line and "B's" ball finishes against the bottom cushion. Who has the choice of break?
A. "B", whose ball finished nearest to the bottom cushion has the choice.
Q3 Must the player who has the choice of break have the SPOT ball?
A. No. He has the choice of either ball and can request his opponent to play the first stroke. He can therefore request his opponent to play the first stroke with the PLAIN ball should he himself wish to play with the SPOT ball.
Q4 A player places his ball to commence the game but it slips from his hand and comes into contact with the red ball. Is this a foul?
A. No. The game has not started until the cue-ball has been placed in the "D" and struck with the tip of the cue.
Q5 Is it a foul for a player to give a MISS at the opening stroke of a game?
A. Yes.

Section 2 - Hazards

Q1 Define a hazard?
A. A hazard is a pot or in-off either object ball.
Q2 How many consecutive hazards are allowed?
A. 15. Either winning (pocketing either of the two object balls) or losing (going in-off either of the two object balls) hazards.
Q3 When must a referee warn a player regarding the number of hazards made?
A. At TEN or on request by the striker.
Q4 A player has made 14 hazards and with his next stroke played a SIX SHOT (pot red and in-off red). Has he made 15 or 16 hazards?
A. 15 hazards. A SIX shot counts as ONE hazard.
Q5 A player pockets the red and in the same stroke makes a cannon. Does this constitute a hazard relating to the limit of 15?
A. No.
Q6 A player makes 15 hazards and the non-striker's ball is off the table as a result of the non-striker's last stroke. What procedure should the referee adopt?
A. The referee should place the non-striker's ball on the centre spot of the "D" and if this spot is occupied it should be placed on the RIGHT hand corner of the "D".
Q7 A player pockets object white and continues to make 14 more hazards. Is the object white brought back into play?
A. No. It is only brought back into play if it is off the table as a result of the opponent's last stroke.
Q8 At the opening stroke of the game a player plays in-off the red and proceeds to make 15 hazards. Is he allowed to have his opponent's white brought back into play?
A. No. (See answer to Q7).
Q9 Should the opponent's white be brought back into play in accordance with the rule is it playable from in-hand?
A. No. It is deemed to be a line ball which is in baulk. To continue his break the player must play a cannon off the red.
Q10 Is it possible for more than the stipulated 15 hazards to be made and if so why?
A. Should the referee omit to warn the striker after 10 hazards have been made and the striker has made more than 10, on being told the number of hazards made, the striker can make a further 5 hazards.

Section 3 - Cannons

Q1 What is a cannon?
A. When the cue ball strikes one of the object balls and then plays on to the second object ball.
Q2 How many consecutive cannons are allowed?
A. Seventy-five (75).
Q3 When should the referee warn a player regarding the number of cannons made?
A. At seventy (70) or on request by the striker.
Q4 Both object balls are out of baulk. Player in-hand, makes a cannon by hitting the bottom cushion first. Is this a fair stroke or foul stroke?
A. Fair stroke. Had the cue-ball NOT come out of baulk it would have been a MISS and a FOUL. Had he failed to hit either of the object balls out of baulk it would also have been a MISS and a FOUL.
Q5 Part of the red ball is on the baulk line but the greater part of it is out of baulk. Object white is in baulk and player is in-hand. Can he play a cannon from red to white even though his own ball does not go out of baulk?
A. Yes - with the greater part of the red being out of baulk it is playable from in-hand and the striker is deemed to have hit a ball out of baulk in making a cannon.
Q6 Player is in-hand. Red is on the baulk line and as much of the red is in baulk as there is out of baulk, object white is in baulk. Can the striker play a cannon from red to white?
A. No. The red is considered a line ball and therefore in baulk and not playable from in-hand.
Q7 What are the values for the respective scoring strokes?
A. Pocket or in-off red scores THREE points. Pocket or in-off white scores TWO points and a cannon TWO points.
Q8 Cue-ball strikes the red ball first then cannons on to the object white and then finishes in a pocket. How many points are scored?
A. FIVE (5) points. Had the object white been struck first then FOUR (4) points would have been scored.

Section 4 - Misses

Q1 Define the MISS rule.
A. A MISS is a foul except when the striker is in-hand and there is no ball out of baulk.
Q2 At the opening stroke of a game the first player gives a MISS. Is this a foul?
A. Yes. He had a ball to play at.
Q3 A player is faced with a double baulk. He gives a MISS. Is this in order?
A. Yes. The stroke is fair because he was in-hand and did not have a ball to play at. He would be penalised TWO points for the MISS.
Q4 When in-hand and without a ball out of baulk to play at, must the player make an attempt to play the ball(s) in baulk?
A. No.
Q5 Striker is in-hand. BOTH object balls are in baulk, one in each of the two bottom pockets - the white being angled on the red. Striker plays straight into a middle pocket giving TWO away. Is this in order?
A. Yes. The striker was in-hand and did not have a ball to play at.
Q6 Player is angled during the game. From this position is he entitled to give a MISS.
A. No. He had a ball to play at.
Q7 Player in-hand in addressing the cue-ball to make a stroke, touches the cue-ball with the tip of his cue. The cue-ball does not go out of baulk. What is the penalty?
A. A FOUL. Two points away.

Section 5 - Touching Ball

Q1 What is the procedure when the cue-ball is touching an object ball?
A. The referee will spot the balls. Red on the spot, object white if on the table on the centre spot and the striker plays from in-hand.
Q2 A player pockets his opponent's white and his own ball finishes touching the red. The referee spots the red ball. Striker plays from in-hand. Striker claims that his opponent's white should also be spotted. Is this claim correct?
A. No. The referee was correct.
Q3 Player "A" pockets his opponent's white. With his next stroke he plays double baulk with his white touching the red. Player "B" playing from in-hand plays straight into a middle pocket giving TWO points away. Referee re-spots the red and striker plays from in hand. Player "A" claims that both object white and the red should be re-spotted. Who is correct?
A. The referee is correct.

Section 6 - Spotting of the Red

Q1 How many times may the red be pocketed off the spot?
A. TWICE.
Q2 Where is the red placed after being pocketed TWICE off the spot?
A. On the CENTRE spot.
Q3 Where is the red placed if it cannot be placed on its own spot?
A. On the Pyramid spot.
Q4 During the game the red rolls on to its spot, it is pocketed from there and re-spotted and pocketed again. Where is the red spotted?
A. On the spot as the first time it was pocketed it had not been placed on the spot by hand and did not count as one of the two times allowed.
Q5 A player pockets the red once off the spot and in the next stroke pockets the red again but in the same stroke he goes in-off the red. Where is the red placed?
A. On the spot as another scoring stroke was played in conjunction with the second pocketing of the red.

Section 7 - Balls Forced off the Table

Q1 What is the penalty for forcing a ball off the table?
A. It is a foul with a 2 point penalty.
Q2 Player plays the red, cue-ball jumps onto the cushion runs along and finishes in a pocket. What is the referee's decision?
A. Fair stroke, THREE points scored.
Q3 Player plays the red, cue-ball jumps on to the cushion then back on to the table and makes a cannon. What is the referee's decision?
A. Fair stroke, TWO points scored.
Q4 The cue-ball, after striking another ball jumps on to the cushion and comes to rest there. What is the procedure?
A. It is a foul stroke. The definition of a ball forced off the table applies when a ball comes to rest other than on the bed of the table.

Section 8 - Ball(s) Incorrectly Spotted

Q1 Player pockets the red which the referee places on the wrong spot. The striker plays again and his opponent claims a foul for a shot being played with a ball incorrectly spotted. Is the claim in order?
A. Yes, it is the responsibility of the striker to see that the balls are correctly spotted before playing the next stroke.

Section 9 - Referee's Decisions

Q1 Player "A" who is spot ball, pockets object white and goes in-off in the same stroke. The referee passes to "A" the plain ball. After the next stroke the referee realises that "A" has played with the wrong ball. What should the referee do?
A. The referee should intervene immediately he realises that the striker has played with the wrong ball. He should award a foul as it is the striker's responsibility to ensure that he is playing with the correct ball.
Q2 The object white is very close to the spot. The striker is uncertain whether the red will spot should it be pocketed. He asks the referee for the information. Should the referee so inform him?
A. No. By doing so the referee would be assisting the player.
Q3 Striker plays in-off the red. His opponent passes the cue-ball back to the striker but in doing so disturbs a ball. What procedure should be adopted?
A. No foul committed, the referee would restore the disturbed ball to its original position and instruct the players to leave the retrieving of the balls to the referee. Striker would continue from in-hand.
Q4 Player in-hand is positioning his ball outside the limits of the "D". Should the referee warn him?
A. No. The referee must not assist the player by stopping him from committing a foul.
Q5 Player in-hand. Both object balls are in baulk. Striker makes a cannon by playing a masse stroke, the cue-ball going out of baulk and returning to make the cannon. Is this a fair or foul stroke?
A. It is a foul stroke. Playing from in-hand the cue-ball must strike a cushion or ball out of baulk before returning into baulk.
Q6 In a time limit match a stroke has been played and whilst the balls were in motion the time ball rings. If any score resulted from that stroke would it be allowed?
A. Yes. The player had made his stroke before the bell rang and any score made up to the balls coming to rest would be allowed.
Q7 Striker makes a cannon hitting both red and object white simultaneously and cue-ball goes in-off. How many points are scored?
A. 4 points scored. When a simultaneous cannon is made the lesser value ball is regarded as the first ball struck.

Snooker

Section 1 - Commencement of a Frame

Q1 In setting the table what is the position of the triangle of reds in relation to the pink?
A. The pink should be on its spot, the apex red as near as possible to the pink without touching and the base of the triangle of reds nearest, and parallel, to the top cushion.
Q2 The frame is about to commence. Player places the cue-ball in the "D" and in doing so he disturbs another ball. Is this a foul?
A. No foul. The frame has not commenced until the cue-ball has been struck from in hand with the tip of the cue.
Q3 Can a player hit a cushion before hitting a red at the opening stroke?
A. Yes, providing the first ball hit by the cue-ball is a red.
Q4 In the opening stroke the striker misses the reds and does not contact any ball. What is the procedure?
A. Foul stroke, penalty of 4 points. Cue-ball must be played from where it has come to rest either by the next player, or by the same player, should the second player so request. Should the second be snookered a free ball would be awarded.
Q5 In the opening stroke of the frame the player misses the reds and does not contact any other ball. Cue ball is not snookered by any colour. The next player claims a "Free ball" maintaining that he cannot hit both sides of any particular red. Is this claim in order?
A. No. A player cannot be snookered on a ball "on" by another ball "on".
Q6 A player misses the reds at the opening stroke, does not contact any other ball and cue-ball comes to rest approximately midway between the blue and the pink on the centre line of the table. The next player can hit the right-hand side of the right-hand corner red and the left-hand side of the left-hand corner red. Should the referee award a "free ball"?
A. Yes. The pink is the obstructing ball.

Section 2 - Spotting of Balls

Q1 Where is the black placed after being pocketed and its own spot is occupied?
A. On the highest available spot. If all spots are occupied the black would be placed as near to its own spot as possible, without touching another ball, in a direct line between the spot and the face of the TOP cushion.
Q2 The yellow is pocketed and all the spots are vacant except the yellow spot. Where is the yellow spotted?
A. On the highest available spot which in this case is the black spot.
Q3 The blue is pocketed and all the spots, including the blue, are occupied Where is the blue placed?
A. As near as possible to its own spot, between that spot and the nearest part of the TOP cushion without touching another ball.
Q4 The black is pocketed, all the spots are occupied and there is no room between the black spot and the face of the top cushion. Where is the black placed?
A. As near as possible to the black spot, without touching another ball, but below the black spot on the centre line of the table. This would also apply if the pink was pocketed, no spot available and no space between the pink spot and the TOP cushion.
Q5 Brown and Blue are pocketed in the same stroke and only the Brown spot is available. Where are the Brown and Blue balls placed?
A. The Brown would be placed on its own spot and the blue as near to its own spot as possible, without touching another ball, between the blue spot and the nearest part of the TOP cushion.
Q6 Again the Brown and Blue are pocketed in the same stroke and only the Yellow spot is available. Where are the two balls placed?
A. The Blue, being the higher value ball, would be placed on the Yellow spot and the Brown would be placed as near to its own spot as possible without touching another ball between the brown spot and the nearest part of the TOP cushion.
Q7 Player pockets the Pink and before the referee can spot the pink the player plays at another red. What is the penalty?
A. SIX points.
Q8 After pocketing a red, striker pockets the Green. The referee spots the green on the Yellow spot. Striker plays again without noting the error. His opponent claims a foul as the striker played with a ball not correctly spotted. Is this claim in order?
A. Yes. Although the referee made the mistake it is up to the striker to see that the balls are correctly spotted.
Q9 The striker having been penalised for playing with a ball not correctly spotted leaves the table. The next player coming to the table requests the referee to spot the incorrectly spotted ball to its rightful position. Should the referee accede to the request?
A. No. The ball not correctly spotted ball should remain where it is as after any foul stroke the next player plays from the position left or he can request his opponent to go again.

Section 3 - Touching Ball

Q1 When should the referee state "Touching Ball"?
A. Without being asked the referee should declare "TOUCHING BALL" when the cue ball comes to rest touching a ball "on" or a colour after a red has been pocketed. If necessary he can indicate which ball is touching.
Q2 Red is the ball "on" and cue-ball is touching the red. Referee has declared "touching ball". Player plays away from the red without disturbing it and does not contact any other ball. Is this in order?
A. Yes. He is deemed to have played the red.
Q3 Striker has pocketed a red, the cue-ball finishes touching the Yellow. Referee declares "touching ball" and striker nominates the yellow plays away from it and snookers his opponent on the remaining reds by the Yellow. Is this a fair stroke?
A. Yes. It is a fair stroke.
Q4 Striker pockets a red and cue-ball comes to rest touching the Brown. Striker nominates and pockets the Black. His opponent claims a foul stating that as the cue-ball was touching the brown the striker must nominate the Brown. Is this claim correct?
A. No. The striker is entitled to nominate any colour he wishes and providing he does not disturb the ball the cue-ball is touching the stroke is in order.
Q5 Red is the ball "on". Cue-ball is touching the red, referee has declared "Touching Ball". Striker plays away from the red without disturbing it, cue-ball strikes the blue which hits another red and pockets it. Is this in order?
A. Yes, perfectly fair stroke.
Q6 After pocketing a red the cue-ball finishes touching the Blue. Referee calls "Touching Ball" striker nominates Blue, plays away from it but cue-ball rebounds from a cushion comes back to hit and pocket the Blue. Is this in order?
A. Yes. Striker obeyed the rule by playing AWAY from the Blue without disturbing it.
Q7 Striker has pocketed a red and cue-ball comes to rest touching a colour with other colours better placed for pocketing. The referee calls "Touching Ball" but should he add anything to that declaration?
A. In that situation with other colours better situated for pocketing then referee should add "Please declare". The striker if not called upon to declare could play at another possibly higher valued colour and fail to reach it and state that he had played the ball the cue-ball was touching.

Section 4 - Free Ball

Q1 When is a player awarded a "Free Ball"?
A. When snookered after a foul stroke.
Q2 Having been awarded a "Free Ball" must a player declare which ball he intends to play?
A. The player need only declare which ball he intends to play on request of the referee.
Q3 Should the referee award a "Free Ball" immediately or on appeal by a player?
A. Immediately.
Q4 Can the ball "on" be pocketed by the nominated ball?
A. Yes.
Q5 Red is the ball "on". Striker has been awarded a "Free ball". He nominates black but mis-cues and cue-ball strikes the red. Is this a fair or foul stroke ?
A. It is a foul stroke. The cue ball must first hit the nominated ball.
Q6 Ball "on" is red. Striker has a "free ball". He nominates a colour, hits that colour which pockets the red and the nominated ball also is pocketed. What is the score and procedure?
A. Two points are scored and the colour is spotted in accordance with the rules.
Q7 Striker nominates the black as his "free ball". He pockets the black and then nominates the black as his colour and proceeds to snooker his opponent behind the black. Is this a foul?
A. No.
Q8 Player has a "free ball". Yellow is the ball "on". Player nominates the green and strikes the yellow and green simultaneously. Has he committed a foul?
A. No.
Q9 Yellow is the ball "on". Striker on a "free ball" nominates the blue. On completion of the stroke the balls are as follows: CUE-BALL-BROWN- BLUE-YELLOW. Opponent claims a foul because the blue is between the cue-ball and the yellow. Is this claim in order?
A. No. When the ball "on" is snookered by more than one ball the effective snookering ball is the one nearest to the cue ball.
Q10 With the last two reds on the table the position after a foul stroke has been made is: RED-BROWN-CUE-BALL-GREEN-RED. Referee awards a "free ball". Striker nominates and plays up to the BROWN. Has he committed a foul by snookering his opponent with the nominated ball?
A. No. There was another red on the table not snookered by the nominated ball. For a foul to be awarded the nominated ball must snooker the striker on ALL balls "on".
Q11 Ball "on" is yellow. Striker has a "free ball" and nominates the blue which he hits and pockets both blue and yellow. What procedure is followed?
A. Fair stroke, yellow remains pocketed, blue is spotted and two points scored.

Section 5 - Playing Again

Q1 When can a player be requested to play again?
A. After any foul has been committed by the previous player.
Q2 How many times can a player be requested to play again?
A. There is no limit.
Q3 After a foul a player requested his opponent to "play again". The opponent objected stating that the first player could hit the ball "on". Was the objection valid?
A. No. After a foul a player can request his opponent to "play again" from the position left irrespective of the position of the balls.
Q4 On being awarded a "free ball" a player prefers his opponent to "play again". Is the opponent to "go again" entitled to a "free ball" or must he play at the ball "on"?
A. He is not entitled to a "free ball" and must play the ball "on".
Q5 Can a player change his mind after asking his opponent to "Go again"?
A. No.

Section 6 - Snookering

Q1 When can a player snooker his opponent behind the nominated ball?
A. After pocketing a red or when only the pink and black remain on the table.
Q2 A Player has been awarded a "free ball" - he nominates the brown and snookers his opponent behind the brown (the nominated ball). What is the procedure?
A. It is a foul, penalty is FOUR points and the next player is awarded a "free ball".

Section 7 - Angled Ball

Q1 When is a ball said to be angled?
A. When a direct stroke in a straight line to any part of every ball "on" is obstructed by a corner of a cushion.
Q2 When should a referee declare "Angled Ball"?
A. After a foul has been committed and the next player is unable to hit both sides of a ball "on".
Q3 Should the referee declare "Angled Ball", what options are open to the striker?
A. Three options are open - (1) The striker can play from the position left, (2) He can request his opponent to "play again" from the position left, or (3) the striker can elect to play from "in-hand".
Q4 If the player who is angled and decides to play from "in-hand" then finds that he is snookered on all balls "on" from any point in the "D", can he claim a "free ball"?
A. Yes.
Q5 Ten reds are on the table, the cue-ball is angled after a foul on nine of the ten reds and is snookered on the remaining tenth red. Can the striker claim "Angled Ball" or a "Free Ball"?
A. As the striker was not angled on ALL balls "on" neither was he snookered on ALL balls "on", neither the "Angled Ball" or "Free Ball" rules can apply.
Q6 In an "Angled Ball" situation, should the referee immediately declare "Angled Ball" or await the striker to claim it?
A. Referee should declare immediately.
Q7 After a foul the cue-ball is angled and the referee has declared "Angled Ball" the next player asks the referee "Does that mean that I can play from in-hand"? Should the referee inform the player?
A. No. The referee must not assist the player by giving advice on the rules.

Section 8 - Ball on Edge of Pocket

Q1 What is the ruling regarding balls falling into a pocket without being hit by another ball?
A. If the ball which falls is part of the stroke, that stroke shall be void, the balls restored to their original positions and the stroke replayed without penalty. If the fallen ball is not an integral part of the stroke the stroke shall stand and only the ball which fell shall be replaced.
Q2 Striker attempts to pocket a ball which stops on the edge of the pocket and then drops in. Is this ball replaced on the edge of the pocket?
A. If the ball momentarily balances on the edge of the pocket and then falls in, the ball shall not be replaced. If, however, the ball remains on the edge of the pocket and the striker moves away and then the ball falls in, the said ball will be replaced.

Section 9 - End of Frame Or Game

Q1 What is the procedure when a frame ends in a tie?
A. If the frame is a single frame match or a frame in a match decided on frames won the black is spotted, the players toss to determine choice of playing from in-hand and the first score or forfeit ends the frame. If, however, the frame is one in a match of total aggregate score over a number of frames, the tied frame score will be accepted unless it is the last frame and the total aggregate scores are equal, in which case the black will be spotted the players determine who is to play first from in-hand and the first score or forfeit ends the match.
Q2 A player is seven points behind his opponent who then goes in-off, thus bringing the scores level. As a foul stroke has been made can the player who went in-off be requested to play the first stroke at the re-spotted black?
A. No. The ruling must be adopted. Toss for choice, black is re-spotted, first score or forfeit ends the frame.
Q3 In a foursomes match a frame ends in a tie. The black is spotted the players toss to see who will play from in-hand at the black. Does it matter what order the players adopt?
A. Once it has been determined who shall play the first stroke the order shall be the same as operated during the frame which ended as a tie.
Q4 The frame ends in a tie the players toss to decide choice of stroke at the spotted black from in-hand. Can the two players who won the toss select which of their two opponents shall play the first stroke.
A. No.
QS What is the procedure when a frame is awarded to a player?
A. The offending player shall lose the frame and forfeit all the points he may have scored and the non-offender shall receive the value of ALL balls on the table. (Each red to count as 8 points: One for the red and seven for black).

Section 10 - Foursomes

Q1 In a foursomes match (which is over a number of frames) can the order of play be changed at the beginning of each frame?
A. Yes.
Q2 Should a foul be committed and a request to "play again" be made, who plays the next stroke, the player who made the foul or his partner?
A. The player who made the foul plays again and the order of play is maintained.
Q3 During a foursomes match it is established that a player has gone out of turn. What is the procedure?
A. The stroke made by the player playing out of turn is a foul and the appropriate penalty is enforced. The original order must then be adhered to but should the next player require the opposition to "play again" the player who went out of turn would be required to do so and then, provided no further foul was committed in the last stroke, the original order would be maintained.
Q4 If a player who has already played out of turn and is requested to "play again" does so, is that player considered guilty of committing a deliberate foul?
A. No. It is considered that no further foul has been committed under these circumstances.
Q5 The striker is about to make a stroke when his partner comes to the table to discuss the stroke. What action should the referee take?
A. He should warn the two players that conferring at the table is not allowed. Players can confer away from the table but once one of the players is at the table he is on his own.
Q6 Difficulties can arise in determining the order of play in foursomes matches. What procedure can the referee adopt to try and avert such happening?
A. The referee can instruct his marker to record the order of play and should any dispute arise the correct order can be established. Naturally this order may vary from frame to frame and should thus be noted.

Section 11 - Referee's Decisions

Q1 A player informs the referee that he, the player, is colour blind. Should the referee inform that player of a colour if requested.
A. Yes.
Q2 What is the penalty for playing with other than the cue-ball?
A. Seven points.
Q3 Player pockets a red and after studying the position of the balls plays at another red. What penalty should the referee impose?
A. Seven points for playing at two reds in succession.
Q4 Yellow is the ball "on". Striker hits yellow and green simultaneously. Is this a foul?
A. Yes. Penalty 4 points.
Q5 Ball "on" is green. Striker miscues, hits blue and at the same time fouls the black with his cue. What is the penalty?
A. Seven points.
Q6 During a frame a player goes "in-off". Penalty is given and next player in placing the cue-ball in the "D" moves a ball. Referee gives a foul and the next player comes to the table and asks the referee if the cue-ball can be moved to another position. What should the referee do?
A. The referee is not to advise on Rules.
Q7 Striker has pocketed a red and walks round the table to assess the possibilities, trails his fingers on the cushion, and inadvertently touches a ball. What would be the referee's decision?
A. Foul and penalty of 7 points. In the absence of nomination the highest penalty must be imposed.
Q8 Striker has made a break and whilst in play asks the referee the respective scores and the difference between the scores. What should the referee reply?
A. The referee should inform the striker that he, the striker, has X number of points on the score-board and that his break amounts to whatever it is. The referee should inform the striker of his opponent's score and the striker would be expected to do his own arithmetic.
Q9 Striker plays a stroke, the cue-ball hits two reds ( red is the ball "on" ) . One red is pocketed the other red jumps up on to the cushion and remains there. What would be the action of the referee?
A. The referee would declare "foul stroke" penalty of four points and remove the red from the cushion and place it in a pocket. Next player has the options.
Q10 A pocket is full of reds. Striker plays to pocket a red but due to the pocket being full the red comes back on to the table. Is that red deemed to have been pocketed?
A. No. The red has come to rest on the bed of the table and not in the pocket. The player could have requested the referee to clear that pocket before playing his stroke, but the referee too should have noticed and transferred some balls to other pockets.
Q11 Striker plays the red the ball "on". Red jumps up on to the cushion, runs along and finished in a pocket. Is this a fair shot?
A. Yes.
Q12 Player comes to the table assumes that his opponent has just gone "in-off" and picks up the cue-ball. He then realises his error and before the referee can call FOUL he drops the cue-ball back on to the table. What action should the referee take?
A. The referee declares Foul, the penalty must be to the value of the ball "on" and the next player plays from in-hand, if snookered the Referee would state "free ball" or player could ask his opponent to play again. If the offender has the cue-ball in his hand and the referee calls "Foul" the referee will impose the penalty prescribed and take the cue-ball from the offender, place it against the bottom cushion for the next player to play from "in-hand" or ask opponent to play again.
Q13 During a frame a red ball comes to rest "leaning" on a colour which is on its spot but the spot is a bad one. When eventually the red ball is played the colour moves and the non-striker claims a foul. Would that claim be admissible?
A. No. The striker would not be penalised for the condition of the spot.
Q14 A colour has been pocketed and the referee attempts to spot the colour. Another ball is very close to the spot and due to the poor condition of that spot the colour if placed on that spot will touch the ball close to the spot. Should the referee place the colour as close as possible to the spot to avoid touching the other ball?
A. No. The colour to be spotted must (a) be placed on its own spot without touching another ball, or (b) be placed on the highest available spot in accordance with the rules. The player cannot be penalised for the shortcomings of the table.
Q15 When should the referee declare "FOUL AND A MISS" and what is the procedure?
A. Should the referee be of the opinion that the striker could have made a better attempt to hit the ball "on" the referee will declare "Foul and a Miss". The referee will then await the decision of the next player, who has the normal options as after any foul, plus the option of having the cue-ball restored to its original position for the offender to play again. The referee will ensure that the incurred penalty is recorded whilst a decision is being made.
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